Many of you will have heard about the challenge of translating ‘Hodor’ and some of the inventive solutions that the various translators came up with. But there are many other terms in A Game of Thrones that also caused issues for translators. Many translation problems in A Game of Thrones were caused by neologisms. These are new words or phrases, or new meanings for existing words or phrases.

Translating Neologisms in A Game of Thrones

As part of my MA in Translation Studies, I wrote my dissertation on the way that neologisms were translated in the French and Spanish versions of A Game of Thrones, the first book in the A Song of Ice and Fire series. I found that the books are full of words and phrases invented by George R.R. Martin. In fact, I found well over 100 neologisms in just the first half of the first book!

Authors often use neologisms in fantasy literature to create new places, concepts and things. This is because these new things help to create distance from reality and make the fantasy world seem stranger. Martin takes this one step further by also renaming everyday things. Oxford dictionaries have named this process ‘side formation’. For example, Martin uses ‘Ser’ instead of ‘Sir’, ‘winesink’ instead of ‘pub’, and ‘common’ instead of ‘general public’.

Strategies for dealing with neologisms

There are a number of ways in which translators can deal with neologisms, including:

  • using the original neologism without changes
  • adapting the original neologism to fit the normal pronunciation or spelling of the target language
  • recreating the original neologism in the target language
  • creating a different neologism in the target language
  • using an existing word from the target language with a similar meaning
  • explaining the term
  • deleting the neologism
  • using a combination of the above methods.

Interestingly, in my study, I found that the most common method of dealing with a neologism was to just replace it with a similar word that already exists. Another frequently used method was to simply use the English term, particularly in cases of character and place names. Having said that, the second most common procedure was to recreate the neologism. I also found some very clever, creative solutions in both the French and Spanish translations.

Despite some excellent solutions, the French translation was heavily criticised, especially by those who had already read the book in English. The complaints mainly focused on Jean Sola’s archaic, formal style and inconsistency in either keeping English names or translating them. For example, Sola decided not to change ‘Winterfell’ or ‘Westeros’, but he did translate ‘Casterly Rock’ and ‘Highgarden’.


Below is a selection of some of the more interesting —both good and bad— translations of neologisms that I found. I have included a literal back-translation of the French and Spanish terms where possible.

EnglishFrenchBack-translation of FrenchSpanishBack-translation of Spanish
direwolfloup-garouwerewolflobo huargowarg wolf
WinterfellWinterfelln/aInvernaliaNo direct translation, but something like Winterland. Also reminiscent of ancient festivals, such as Saturnalia.
Blackwater RushNéraNo direct translation. Néra/Nera is the name of several rivers and nero/a means black in Italian.AguasnegrasBlackwaters
septseptuaireA blend of sanctuaire (sanctuary) and sept (seven).septoseptum (!)
Starfallforteresse des MétéoresMeteor fortressCampoestrellaStarfield
weirwoodbarralA French surname and old term for barrel.arcianoNo direct translation, but possibly a combination of arbol (tree), anciano (old man), and arcano (mystery).
small councilConseil restreintSmall/select council (from comité restreint- select committee)Consejo Privado del reythe King’s Privy Council
master of coinGrand ArgentierGrand Argentier is a nickname for Finance Minister.consejero de la monedaminister/adviser of the coin
DragonstonePeyredragonDragonstone (peyre means stone in Occitan, although many readers may not know this)RocadragonDragonrock
barrowlandsla région des tertresthe region of (burial) moundslos Túmulosthe Tumuli (burial mounds)
HeartsbaneCorveninHeartvenom (cor means heart in Latin, but this may not be obvious to readers, especially since it means horn or callus in French)Veneno de CorazonHeart Venom
sourleafsurellesurelle means sour in Old French.hojamargaA blend of hoja (leaf) and amarga (bitter).
southronbougres du sudwretches from the Southsureñosoutherner
bloodriderssang-coureursblood-runners (coureur also means womaniser)jinetes de sangreblood riders

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